Sclerotherapy – is a medical procedure aimed at eliminating vascular defects, such as varicose veins, reticular varicose veins and hemorrhoids. In most cases, sclerotherapy is practiced for aesthetic purposes. This technique is often used to remove telangiectasias that appear on the face. In some situations, sclerotherapy can be an adequate solution to the problems of lymphatic malformations, characterized by pain, swelling and night cramps. This intervention involves the injection of a special sclerosing solution that causes vascular collapse.
Sclerotherapy is a fairly safe procedure. However, sometimes it can lead to complications, which the patient must be informed about.
Mostly, these are temporary side effects that resolve within a few days or weeks. These include:
- red and embossed skin;
- dark spots and lines;
- small bright red vessels on the skin.
Less commonly, sclerotherapy causes moderate side effects that require appropriate treatment. This may be an inflammatory process at the injection site. The affected area becomes swollen, painful and hot. In such cases, the doctor prescribes anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics.
After injection of a sclerosing agent, clots may form inside the blood vessel that interfere with the passage of blood, compromising proper tissue supply.
If headaches, coughing, nausea, and vision problems occur after sclerosing injections, this may be evidence of air bubbles in the bloodstream.
Preparation for sclerotherapy
In order to recommend the procedure, physician first must check patient's history, conduct a physical examination. Before sclerotherapy, the patient is advised to avoid depilation or application of creams to the areas to be treated within 24 hours before starting treatment.
Assessing the medical history, the doctor finds out whether the patient suffers from cardiovascular diseases or blood diseases, whether there is an allergy to any substance, whether he smokes (since smoking causes blood clots), if he has undergone treatment for varicose veins. All procedures based on antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants should be discontinued several weeks before the start of sclerotherapy, otherwise there is a risk of bleeding.
Sclerotherapy sessions are performed on an outpatient basis and do not require anesthesia. Usually the procedure lasts less than an hour.
Injections are made using a very thin needle, ideal for any type of blood vessel, even the thinnest. A sclerosing solution, usually consisting of polydocanol alcohol, sodium tetradecyl sulfate, sodium salicylate and chromed glycerol, acts to close a damaged vessel and then destroy it. These changes do not affect blood circulation, because the blood finds alternative paths and continues to perform its normal functions. A sclerosing solution can be used both as a liquid and as a foam. Foam preparation is more effective for large venous vessels.
After the injection, to ensure better diffusion of the sclerosing solution, the doctor carefully compresses and massages the affected area. The number of injections depends on the number of affected veins and their size. Therefore, the larger the blood vessel or area in need of treatment, the more injections.
At the end of the compression and massage phases, the patient remains under the supervision of a doctor for 15 to 20 minutes. Next, you should walk a few minutes to prevent the formation of blood clots inside the venous vessels.
. For about three weeks, wearing compression bandages or elastic stockings is recommended to maximize injection results. Returning to daily activities should be gradual - avoid excessive stress on the legs for a month. Also, do not give in to excessive exposure to sunlight, as this can trigger the appearance of dark spots.
On small blood vessels, sclerotherapy results become noticeable after 3 to 6 weeks, on large vessels, only after 3 to 4 months.
В In any case, 30 days after the session, a follow-up examination by a vascular surgeon is necessary. In the Bogoliuby MC, a neodymium laser DEKA Synchro FT (Italy) is used to eliminate vascular pathologies.