The term hematuria indicates the presence of blood in the urine. This can be visually noticeable, or established only by microscopic examination. In the case of macroscopic hematuria, the color of urine changes depending on the amount of blood loss. 1ml bleeding is enough to make the phenomenon visually noticeable. Traces of blood in the urine give the liquid various shades: from pinkish and reddish to dark brown. However, we must remember that the reddish urine is not always synonymous with hematuria. A similar phenomenon may be associated with the use of certain drugs (phenacetin, ibuprofen, methyldopa, rifampicin) or the use of certain products (beets, rhubarb).
Urine may be colored due to the presence of bile acids in it, as well as during menstruation due to contamination with vaginal bleeding or endometriosis of the urinary tract.
It should be understood that hematuria is not a diagnosis, but a symptom of a disease, potentially serious. Therefore, before choosing the appropriate treatment, a thorough diagnosis is necessary. The most used methods are ultrasound of the kidneys, bladder, prostate gland, urography.
Diseases that provoke bleeding are most often associated with the presence of stones, tumors, or inflammatory processes in the kidneys, bladder, and urinary tract. Hematuria may also be associated with tuberculosis, циститом, cystitis, the use of anticoagulants, polycystic kidney disease, prostatitis, prostate adenoma or trauma affecting the kidneys and / or urinary tract. Cases of hematuria in athletes have been reported after intense and prolonged physical exertion, such as prolonged running and cycling.
Diagnosis of hematuria
The basis for the initial diagnosis is the assessment of concomitant symptoms. For example, if the presence of blood in the urine is accompanied by lower back pain, this is probably due to the presence of kidney stones or the bladder. If hematuria is associated with difficulty urinating, or manifests itself during bowel movements, this may indicate prostate diseases.
The treatment depends on the disease that caused the anxiety. If hematuria is caused by an infectious factor, then therapy is based on the use of antibiotics. In such a case, the use of a narrow spectrum of drugs is recommended after testing sensitivity for antibiotics. The test provides very useful information for finding the most suitable medicine to combat the pathogen.
In the presence of kidney stones, the method of splitting these mineral aggregates with a laser or minimally invasive surgery is often used.
In case of mild prostatic hypertrophy, drug therapy is indicated (anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, 5-alpha reductase enzyme inhibitors). With moderate or severe prostatic hypertrophy, endoscopic removal of the enlarged portion is usually performed.