Gynecomastia is a term that indicates enhanced breast development in men. As a result of the disease, the patient has breasts growing, like a woman. This similarity in most cases creates complex psychological consequences. Naturally, life with such a violation can lead to problems in the social and sexual sphere.
Causes of gynecomastia
The causes of gynecomastia are numerous, among them are: genetic, hormonal, pharmacological. The main culprit of gynecomastia, experts consider a change in hormonal balance. In particular, there is an imbalance in the metabolism of testosterone and estrogen in favor of the latter.
Over the past few years, experts have talked a lot about the so-called "food estrogen." Under this term, products are enriched with substances that have a special affinity for estrogens. Currently, more than one hundred chemical compounds are known that have such harmful properties. These include: pesticides, livestock growth stimulants, drugs for humans and those used in veterinary medicine.
Classification of gynecomastia
Gynecomastia is classified according to its origin:
- puberty gynecomastia, as a physiological process that occurs during puberty (12-17 years), when an intense hormonal surge causes excessive development of the mammary glands. This phenomenon tends to subside within a few years;
- congenital gynecomastia;
- Gynecomastia induced: in this case, the cause should be sought in taking certain medications that affect the natural hormonal function;
Gynecomastia can also be classified into::
- true: an increase in breast volume due to an increase in the glandular component;
- false: an increase in breast volume is caused by an abundance of adipose tissue in the chest area;
- mixed: an increase in breast volume is caused by the interaction of the two factors described above.
Gynecomastia can be one-sided or bilateral, initially manifested by increased sensitivity in the nipple. Later, edema associated with the deposition of adipose tissue and an increase in glandular tissue joins.
Diagnosis of gynecomastia
The diagnosis is made on the basis of palpation and ultrasound. Ultrasound is prescribed to resolve any doubts regarding the tumor origin of breast augmentation. Today, gynecomastia is quite common. It is estimated that in the future, in the industrialized regions of the country, the incidence rate will increase.
Treatment and prevention of gynecomastia
In order to prevent gynecomastia, the following rules must be observed: do not overdo the consumption of meat products, enrich your diet with a high fiber content (increase the number of fruits and vegetables), follow a program of regular physical activity, control body weight, as obese people have significant testosterone levels decreases, and estrogen levels increase.
If we are talking about true gynecomastia, then the regression of the disease can occur only during puberty. In adulthood, the possibility of spontaneous regression is very small, and requires surgical intervention. If gynecomastia is due to the localization of body fat, then the chances of recovery are higher. This does not always require surgical intervention, as the disease can be easily cured with the help of a nutritional correction program aimed at reducing fat.
Surgical strategies vary depending on the nature of the problem. With excess body fat, simple liposuction is usually sufficient under local anesthesia. With excess glandular tissue, surgical removal of the mammary gland is necessary.