In medical circles, when it comes to small testis, this condition is called тtesticular hypotrophy or hypotrophy of the testis, and it is characterized by a decrease in testicular volume. The testis are known to play a key role in the development of primary and secondary male characteristics, as well as in controlling male fertility.
Normally, the size of the testis can range from three to five centimeters, with a volume of about 14 - 25 ml. If the size of the testicles is below the specified range, then we can talk about malnutrition. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that in healthy men with age, the testes decrease in volume, but this does not consider pathology, this is a normal consequence of physiological aging.
СIt is believed that in 70-75 years, testicular volume is lower by 30% compared with the average volume at a young age. Thus, small testes are not always a consequence of pathology or dysfunction, and therefore it is necessary to distinguish between these two conditions. In case of any doubt, it is preferable to ask the advice of a qualified specialist and to visit urologist.
Causes of Hypotrophy of testis
Testicular hypotrophy can be caused by factors of various origins and nature, which can vary greatly, from bacterial or viral infections to circulatory disorders. A decrease in testicular volume may be a manifestation of pathological conditions such as:
- male hypogonadism;
- Kleinfelter's syndrome;
- testicular cancer.
In addition, alcohol abuse, drugs and anabolic steroids also lead to testicular malnutrition. Finally, a decrease in testicles can also be one of the side effects of antitumor chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Symptoms Hypotrophy of testis
A decrease in testicular volume leads to impaired spermatogenesis, which is subsequently fraught with infertility, as well as a decrease in the production of steroid hormones, followed by a decrease in the severity of secondary sexual characteristics. As a diagnostic method, a spermogram and a blood test for hormones can be recommended.
Treatment of Hypotrophy of testis
Recommended hormone replacement therapy to overcome the lack of production of sex hormones caused by testicular malnutrition. If the condition is a consequence of the underlying disease, then therapy is primarily aimed at removing the root cause.