One of the important characteristics of women's health is an indicator of vaginal acidity. For the diagnosis of«bacterial vaginosisз» a microscopic examination of the smear and a pH test are necessary.
Bacterial vaginosis: what is it?
Bacteria, hormones, epithelial cells that line the walls of the vagina - they are all in a state of delicate balance. If a woman of reproductive age has a sufficient level of estrogen and there is no glycogen deficiency, lactobacilli dominate among vaginal bacteria. They create an acidic environment using saccharum epithelium. Such an environment inhibits the growth of other microorganisms, for example, anaerobic bacteria, protecting the female intimate zone from their aggression.
Under certain conditions, for reasons that have not yet been fully clarified, the balance between vaginal bacteria is disturbed, and lactobacilli are replaced by anaerobic bacteria that are not capable of acid synthesis. Instead of acid, they produce ammonia derivatives - amines, malodorous compounds. Such changes in the composition of the vaginal flora are accompanied by secretions and an unpleasant odor. This is bacterial vaginosis.
Statistics show that 20% of patients with vaginal problems determine bacterial vaginosis. More often, the disease is noted in women who abuse douching, have multiple sexual intercourse and lesbians.
Symptoms of Bacterial Vaginosis
Patients mainly complain of foul-smelling vaginal discharge. After sexual contact, symptoms may intensify. It should be noted that with bacterial vaginosis, as a rule, there are no complaints of itching, pain or burning. If such symptoms occur, then the likelihood of the presence of other sexual problems is not excluded.
During a gynecological examination, the walls of the vagina are not hyperemic, covered with homogeneous discharge of a grayish color, there is no hypersensitivity and pain.
Complications from bacterial vaginosis
Bacterial vaginosis increases the likelihood of incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, such as herpes, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV. With hysteroscopy, hystectomy, curettage and other gynecological procedures, there is a risk of intrauterine infection, and in pregnant patients - a miscarriage and premature birth.
Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis
The leading method for laboratory diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis is based on the results of a microscopic examination of a smear stained by Gram. Using this method, the morphotype of a bacterium associated with a disease can be described. A scale from 0 to 10 reflects the state of the vaginal flora, the ratio between the existing bacteria. Values 0 - 3 indicate the normal state of the bacterial environment of the vagina, and 8 - 10 indicate vaginosis.
If there are complaints or suspicions, it is possible to carry out PCR diagnostics - a study of the biocenosis of the urogenital tract in the Bogoliuby MC.
Treatment of bacterial vaginosis
Therapy of the disease is based on the suppression of anaerobic bacteria. Antibiotics such as metronidazole and dalacin are quite effective. Drugs are taken as directed by a doctor orally or locally (in the vagina).
Studies show that about 30% of patients within three months after the end of treatment complains of a relapse of signs of the disease. After a year, symptoms return in 60% of women. Recurrent vaginosis requires several months of maintenance therapy. Against the background of taking antibiotics, 30% of patients develop candidiasis.
Are there any other causes of vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor other than bacterial vaginosis?
The source of the problem is not necessarily the vagina. This can be the inguinal region, the uterus, the cervix. Only a complete gynecological examination дmakes it possible to determine the exact diagnosis. Differential diagnosis with fungal infection and Trichomonas is necessary.