Dyspareunia - is a painful condition that is felt by a woman during intercourse. Often dyspareunia is associated with vaginismus and other non-coital sexual disorders, however, they should be differentiated.
Vaginismus - is a condition that usually occurs before sexual intercourse and consists in a phobia of penetration, and dyspareunia coincides with sexual intercourse. According to statistical estimates, 15% of women of childbearing age suffer from dyspareunia, and 45% of postmenopausal women. As can be seen from these data, the above disorder is quite common. (Очень редко диспареуния встречается и у мужчин.) However, the disease, unfortunately, was not previously given due attention, it was practically ignored by doctors. However, in recent years, dyspareunia has been the subject of focused research aimed at possible predisposing factors. (Very rarely, dyspareunia occurs in men.)
Classification of dyspareunia
The onset of pain is a very important element for classifying dyspareunia as primary (occurs at the beginning of sexual activity) and acquired (the disorder manifests itself after a few years). For the classification of dyspareunia, other parameters must be taken into account, for example, the effect of stress. The state of stress very often accompanies dyspareunia. In some cases of dyspareunia, the pain can be so sharp and severe that it interferes with any attempt to penetrate.
Dyspareunia is also classified depending on the nature of the main cause - psychogenic, organic, mixed, therapeutic and unknown. Not the least role is played by the place of localization of pain.
Causes of dyspareunia
According to the characteristics of the causes, dyspareunia can be divided into three categories: multi-system, multi-factor and complex. Multi-system dyspareunia is a condition in which many systems (endocrine, nervous, muscle, vascular, immune) are involved in the pathological process. Multifactorial dyspareunia is associated with various factors - psychological, sexual, relational. Complex dyspareunia includes all of the above aspects.
Localization of pain
Dyspareunia can be superficial, moderate vaginal and deep beyond the localization of pain. A significant difference between medium vaginal and deep dyspareunia lies in the "defensive" contraction of the anus, typical of medium vaginal dyspareunia.
The degree of pain intensity is evaluated on a scale from 0 to 10, where «0» - is the minimum pain, and «10» - “10” is the maximum, almost unbearable. Women complain, in fact, of variable pain, which increases and decreases depending on the situation.
The most effective treatment for dyspareunia is psychological therapy, preferably without the use of drugs. The history of each individual patient should be carefully studied to bring the condition into a state of persistent remission.