Hemangioma of the newborn is a fairly common phenomenon, from which about 10% of all babies suffer. What is it? Hemangioma - is a benign tumor of endothelial cells lining the blood vessels from the inside. Tumor lesion is characterized by a dense collection of capillaries that form nodules.
Hemangiomas can occur in any part of the body, including on the skin and internal organs. Tumors are often localized on the head or neck, especially the “favorite” places - the cheeks, lips, and upper eyelid. Often, hemangioma affects the liver, respiratory tract, as well as the heart and brain. The tumor does not appear immediately after birth, but about two weeks after. It should be borne in mind that most hemangiomas spontaneously regress and do not require special treatment. However, if the tumor interferes with the normal function of the organ or is fraught with complications, then it makes sense to resort to surgical intervention.
Causes of hemangiomas
The exact causes of hemangiomas are still not known. There are suggestions that hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) in the soft tissues, caused by an increased level of circulating hormones, can provoke the appearance of a tumor. The important role of placental tissue during pregnancy is noted.
The development of hemangiomas
Hemangiomas undergo three stages of development and involution. In the proliferation phase, hemangioma grows very rapidly, rapidly increasing in size. The defeat is becoming more apparent, becoming irregular in shape and bright red in color. If the hemangioma is localized deeply, then the skin in this place becomes bluish and elevated slightly. The proliferation phase can last up to 12 months.
The resting phase is from 1 to 2 years. Changes in the appearance of hemangiomas are not detected.
In the involution phase, the hemangioma begins to decrease in size gradually. During this period, the hemangioma becomes gray and soft to the touch. In general, 50% of lesions disappear at the age of 5-7 years and 80% - up to 10 years. Of course, few parents have the patience to do nothing “with this”, since the appearance of the tumor is very unattractive, especially if the child is in a prominent place.
Symptoms of hemangiomas
Hemangiomas, as a rule, do not cause any symptoms either during or after formation, until they grow and reach large sizes, or take on a plural form. Depending on the size and location of the tumors, difficulty breathing, feeding, urinating or visual sense. Skin hemangiomas look like wine-colored spots raised above the surface.
Possible complications of hemangiomas
Complications of hemangiomas include:
- ulceration of the affected surface;
- optic atroph;
- difficulty breathing.
Diagnosis of hemangiomas
Diagnosis of hemangiomas is not difficult, since most superficial lesions are clearly visible and can be easily recognized by physical examination. The presence of deep hemangioma is confirmed by ultrasound, MRI.
Treatment of hemangiomas
As mentioned above, most hemangiomas disappear without treatment, leaving only minimal signs. The involution process takes more than one year, and the patient may experience psychosocial discomfort associated with visible skin lesions. In this case, a pulsed laser can be used to reduce redness and accelerate tumor healing. When hemangiomas interfere with vision, breathing and hearing, then it makes sense to resort to surgical intervention.